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Ornithopter models EV1 to EV4














At the EV2 the flapping wings offers a good potential for a strong twisting. However, there was no capable flight result. Bearing clearances and undesirable elasticity of the wing spars plays a too big role. The adjusting, keeping and reproducing of a definite angle of attack was almost impossible in the area of the wing tips.

According to current experience and knowledge the used principle of Twisting by stroke movement of the auxiliary spar is inapplicably for ornithopters with a large wing span. For the rest good substantial progresses at the construction have been achieved with the EV2.







During powered flight, the twisting of the hand wings has been too small. During the downstroke, especially near the wing tips, the angle of incidence were not enough negative. But at that time, definite theoretical instruction about the distribution of this angle along the span was missing (e.g. 2001, handbook, chapter 6.5 to 6.7).