Titelbild

How Ornithopters Fly

Flagge flag vlag pavillon

Articulated flapping wings

Description of flapping wing constructions
which have been developed together with the EV-models

Content:

  1. Aeroelastic controlled articulated flapping wing
  2. With increasing wing twisting near the wing tip
  3. With adjustable twisting moment
  4. Aeroelastic controlled articulated flapping wing
    with adjustable twisting moment and
    expanding wing twisting at the wing tip
  5. Covering of flapping wings
  6. Related links

1. Aeroelastic controlled articulated flapping wing

key

2. With increasing wing twisting
near the wing tip

key

3. With adjustable twisting moment

key

4. Aeroelastic controlled articulated flapping
wing with adjustable twisting moment and
expanding wing twisting at the wing tip

Maximum wing twisting
Maximum intended wing twisting (click on picture)

In flight practice the articulated flapping wing has a big advantage. The bending of the hand wing in comparison to the arm wing depends on lift of the hand wing. At the same time it determines the distribution of the angle of incidence along the wing span. If the amplitude of the bending is estimable on flight pictures, the lift forces of the hand wing in comparison to the gliding flight can be estimated. Furthermore, the distribution of the angle of incidence in the moment of the picture was taken can easily be suggested (please look at EV6 and EV7). With these tow information's selective adjustments of the twisting moment of the flapping wing, the driving power and the cycle time ratio are possible. Especially flight pictures taken approximately in the middle of up- and downstroke are informative.

In this paper you can find some more details about the
Articulated flapping wings (in German, PDF 1.3MB).

Informations and suggestions for a further development you will also find in the article Lift during wing upstroke (version 7.0, PDF 0.7 MB).

key

5. Covering of flapping wings

Here the description of the manufacturing processes of the

Covering of a flapping wing with an elastic film

(version 1.1, in German, PDF 360 KB)